The application of electric energy for treatment purposes is called electrotherapy. For healing purposes, but also diagnostic ones, the following kinds of power is used:
1.Direct current (galvanization, iontophoresis, galvanic baths, medicinal electrophoresis),
2.Pulsating direct current (Leduc current, Bernard’s (DDC) current, exponential current, modulated current),
3.Alternating current (currents of lower, middle and high frequency),
4.Electrostimulation (classic electrostimulation, TENS, FES)..
Physical therapy is a special medical discipline based on the application of physical agents or factors for purposes of treatment and rehabilitation of the hurt or the injured. The main task is the maximum reduction of psychophysical incompetencies developed after an injury or a disease, through the establishing of damaged functions or its compensation and improvement of the impaired autoregulation.
One of the most used methods of physical therapy is ELECTROTHERAPY, while in our emergency room, thanks to our modern equipment, you have more than thirty different kinds of current at your disposal, which can be applied depending on the specific needs and phases of treatment of each individual patient.
WHEN IS THE ELECTROTHERAPY APPLIED?
Electrotherapy can be used independently too, but it is most often combined with other types of physical agents. It can be applied during the rehabilitation process of:
– different painful conditions (cervical and lumbar syndromes),
– orthopedic patients (after an injury),
– neurological patients (muscle weaknesses, paralysis…),
– degenerative changes in various joints,
– circulation disorders.
HOW IS THE ELECTROTHERAPY USED?
The patient is placed in a comfortable, relaxed position. The treatment application alone is given locally. Electrodes are administered to the place of pain or to the place where there is an issue to be attended to, in a way specific to different kinds of currents. The therapy should be painless, pleasant, and the patient can sometimes feel a slight numbness, tingling, or contractions, all of which are explained in detail by an assigned physical therapist, controlling all the parameters, as well as the subjective feeling of the patient. The duration of the therapy varies, most often from ten to thirty minutes.
In medicine, apart from the diagnostic purposes, the ultrasound energy is used for treatment as well. When it comes to physical medicine, the most used frequencies are 1 MHz and 3 MHz, by alternating between the continued or impulsive mode in different cycles. The ultrasound therapy is classified as a mechanic-thermal form of therapy considering the complex effect it provides. Depending on the parameters (the form and duration of the impulse, the break, the frequency and the intensity), it is possible to focus on achieving the thermal effect (the temperature rise and the increase in the reflection against obstacles such as bones and joints) or the micromassage of the treated tissue segment.
The ultrasound in physical medicine is employed when we want to achieve:
– Tissue hyperemisation,
– Metabolic functions and microcirculation acceleration,
– Improvement in the metabolic features of connective tissue (collagen fibers),
– Pain relief,
– Acceleration of the healing process,
– Stimulation of the bone tissue healing.
HOW IS THE ULTRASOUND USED IN PHYSICAL THERAPY?
The patient is placed in a comfortable, relaxed position, either sitting or lying down. Considering the fact that the ultrasound is poorly transmitted through the air, a neutral gel (or a remedy in the form of a gel) is used as a contact medium, as well as water (a subactive ultrasound which is applied when certain body parts are being treated). The treatment alone is painless and pleasant, and usually goes on for 5 minutes.
Low-level lasers have been used for many years in physical medicine. Laserotherapy is a laser energy application, i.e. a coherent, monochromatic, very focused beam of light. The laser is a form of stimulated radiation where all emitted photons are equal. They all have the same length and the same direction, so the resulting light is monochromatic, coherent and focused.
WHEN IS THE LASEROTHERAPY APPLIED?
The Laserotherapy is known to lessen acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, muscle spasms and neurogenic pain (by endogenous opioids), to alleviate inflammatory reactions and edema, and to reduce the level of prostaglandin and other factors of inflammation. Laserotherapy is used in cases of:
-states of all sorts of pain,
-arthritis and arthrosis,
-lumbar and neck spine aches,
-tendons and muscles,
-burns and open wound which heal slowly,
-ulcus and lacerations,
HOW IS THE LASEROTHERAPY APPLIED?
The laser treatment is completely painless. The patient is placed in a relaxed position. The laser beam alone can be applied to the place of the pathological process at hand, but also to the sore spots, so-called trigger points, or the acupuncture points. The duration of a treatment is individually-conditioned and depends on the type of issue being treated. The laserotherapy application shows extremely good results because it very quickly leads to the pain relief and the injured tissue regeneration. Laserotherapy can be applied independently or in combination with some other method of physical therapy.
Tecar therapy is based on the application of radio frequency waves which provoke a heat reaction in the tissue. Treating the injured area with radiant energy which is biocompatible speeds up the metabolic processes and stimulated self-healing.
Tecar therapy with its capacitive and resistive modes can help produce a deep therapeutic treatment which penetrates deep into the treated area, enhancing natural regeneration processes, and having an anti-inflammatory effect.
Positive effects are already visible after the first treatment. The pain is lessened (in 85% of cases), while the mobility is increased, the tissue regenerated and the healing accelerated.
TECAR can be used independently, but it is often combined with other methods of physical therapy. It is particularly helpful as a preparation for kinesitherapy i.e. exercises for conditions such as:
– Muscle hypertonia,
– Muscle regeneration and relaxation,
– Post-traumatic disorders,
– Acute and chronic pain,
– Sports injuries treatments.
HOW IS TECAR APPLIED?
Tecar therapy is given using two electrodes whose source is a radiofrequency generator. With the help of a special gel as a contact medium and while applying pressure to the skin, radio waves stimulate the patient’s body internal energy and emits a sufficient amount of heat needed to lessen the pain or inflammation and to improve the blood flow.
Tecar therapy can also be carried out with a gentle massage (recommended when there is a muscle tension), passive stretching (when the mobility of certain body part needs to be increased) or voluntary muscle activation (contributes to muscle relaxation).
Bemer therapy with its electromagnetic characteristics impacts the MICROCIRCULATION (targeted, of a certain body part), and activates it by widening (vasodilation) and narrowing (vasoconstriction) even the smallest blood vessels. Through this process of vasomotion, an immune response is induced in the form of self-healing. The tissues restore their primary functions, renew their oxygen and nutrients supplies, while the processes of breakdown and reabsorption of of inflammation products, caused by a trauma (injury) or by tissue degeneration
WHEN IS BEMER THERAPY APPLIED?
Bemer therapy is used in cases of:
– Degenerative changes (chronic arthritis),
– Post-inflammatory processes (after musculoskeletal tissue trauma, fractures, distortions),
– Healing of the wounds or autoimmune diseases whose symptoms are visible changes on the surface of the skin (psoriasis, eczemas, acne),
– Chronic metabolism disorders (diabetes mellitus),
– Removals of the possibility of an infection/prevention of an infection,
– Strengthening of the immune system,
– The increase of stamina, as well as in patients which suffer from chronic tiredness, stress. Furthermore, it is used with patients with diagnosed multiple sclerosis (Sclerosis multiplex).
The goal of high intensity laser therapy (HILT) is to influence various processes in musculoskeletal system which lead to acute or chronic pain. Pathological processes are caused by degeneration, injuries or poor circulation, and are located in any smaller or larger cavity in the body. The laser beam energy transmitted to the target tissue cells has an anti-inflammatory effect (it reduces inflammation), antiedematous effect (it enhances swelling reabsorption), analgesic effect (it lessens the pain by stimulating nerve endings directly and indirectly) — all of which helps and accelerates tissue regeneration and recovery.
By combining the photomechanical stimulation and biostimulation, accelerated healing of the tissue and momentary pain relief by nerve endings stimulation is achieved.
The high power of the beam enables greater penetration, so that the necessary dose of energy reaches the deeper tissues when needed. This is important because pathological process are sometimes located in deeper structures, unreachable in the past: certain joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones… Tissue and cell stimulation (biostimulation) leads to the start of a series of biological signals which further influence and accelerate healing and regeneration processes, microcirculation and lymphatic drainage.
WHEN IS THE HILT APPLIED?
High intensity laser therapy is used for a range of painful conditions, and, if necessary, in combination with other methods of physical therapy.
It is most often used to treat the following conditions:
-after sports and other kinds of injuries (sprained ankle),
-degenerative diseases of peripheral joints (hip, knee, shoulder, small joints of the hands and feet…),
-pain in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae area caused by a number of things,
-painful shoulder, frozen shoulder, tennis elbow,
-tendon and ligament injuries and inflammation,
-pain in foot region due to deformities and encumbrance (plantar fasciitis),
-tension and pain in muscles,
-damaged peripheral nerves.
Patients are placed in a comfortable, relaxed position, either on their stomach or back, depending on the region being treated. Both the patient and the physical therapist wear protective glasses. The treatment is painless and it most often consists of two phases. During the first phase, analgesia is carried out, and during the second, biostimulation, when the patient feels gentle warmth. The duration of the treatment can vary depending on the kind of issue being attended. It usually lasts for about twenty minutes.
Pressotherapy is painless, non-invasive therapy which enables body detox through the stimulation of the lymph drainage by applying adequate, moderate pressure on upper and lower body extremities. We use specially designed add-ons – trouser legs and sleeves, made up of cylinders which are intermittently filled with air, while the order, duration and pressure are controlled by a pre-programmed software, depending on the issue being treated.
The main characteristic of PRESSOTHERAPY is the improvement of the lymphatic system by accelerating it and redirecting it when necessary, along with a direct or indirect effect on the venous blood flow. Therefore, not only is the body’s active immune response facilitated but also its undisturbed functioning as a whole.
Due to everyday stress, inadequate diets, unfavorable genetic predispositions, different kinds of infections, the functioning of the immune system is aggravated, thence the need for PRESSOTHERAPY, which next to its influence on the lymphatic system (reduction of lymphedemas caused by a number of things) and the venous system (circulation improvement), also affects body detox in general, and it can also attribute to the removal of fat layers and cellulite.
WHEN IS THE PRESSOTHERAPY APPLIED?
Pressotherapy is applied in cases of:
– swelling (lymph edemas), discomfort caused by swollen (heavy) feet,
– prevention of varicose veins (venous stasis, venous thrombosis),
– detoxification (reduction and elimination of excess water and toxins),
– discomfort in patients with neuralgias and ischemias of the lower extremities,
– muscle relaxation and regeneration,
– stimulation of the local metabolism improvement,
– fluid reduction in procedures of weight loss,
– cellulite prevention and reduction,
– liposuction treatments (before and after),
– skin and connective tissue tightening.
WHEN IS THE PRESSOTHERAPY APPLIED?
During the treatment application itself the patient is fully-dressed, in a relaxed, horizontal position, while the treatment process itself is exceptionally pleasant. One session usually lasts for thirty to sixty minutes, and can be combined with other methods of physical therapy, as well as different aesthetic treatments.
Shock wave is a dynamic sound wave which carries the acoustic energy to the aching spot and encourages tissue recovery. In the target tissue, it temporarily relieves the pain (analgesia), improves the microcirculation and muscle relaxation (myorelaxation). Furthermore, it prompts cells creating collagen and bone tissue which, along with the stimulation of neovascularization (formation of new blood vessels), accelerates the healing process and impaired tissue regeneration.
Shock wave is designed in such a way so as to avoid skin damage. Shockwave therapy is also used for resolution of calcifications in ligaments, tendons and muscles.
WHEN IS THE SHOCK WAVE APPLIED? Shock wave is used: -when there are calcifications in soft tissues (plantar fasciitis, shoulder muscles tendons, Achilles tendon…),
-when there is muscle, joint, and tendon PAIN (tennis elbow),
-for the frozen shoulder (also known as adhesive capsulitis) treatment,
-for the increased muscle tone (trigger points in the muscles),
-For sports injuries (muscle ruptures or strains) treatment.
WHEN IS THE SHOCK WAVE APPLIED?
Shock wave is used:
-when there are calcifications in soft tissues (plantar fasciitis, shoulder muscles tendons, Achilles tendon…),
HOW IS THE SHOCK WAVE APPLIED?
The patient is placed in a comfortable position, either lying or sitting down, depending on the place of the pathological process. It is important for the treated segment to be completely relaxed. A neutral gel is used as a contact medium. The treatment of one area can last up to ten minutes, and it is necessary to take a break between two treatments (3-10 days), depending on the issue at hand. One series is usually made up of three to six treatments.
Miha Bodytec is the latest generation of EMS devices made in accordance with German technology. It works on the principle of low intensity alternating current and it is highly efficient and safe for the human body. Miha Bodytec iis ideal for those with demanding careers, as well as those leading a fast paced life and value their leisure time. It is used by both amateurs and professional athletes. Miha Bodytec is the official device of the German Olympic committee.
It won a prestigious Plus X Award for the most innovative brand of 2014.
With Miha Bodytec in just a few weeks you can achieve results you used to need months for. Fast twenty-minute practice is a physical equivalent to a two-hour practice at the gym. Electrical impulses make up to eighty five contractions, thereby influencing the development of fast-twitch muscle fibers the most. Hence, the speed, dynamic and time of the reaction is improved.
Miha Bodytec simultaneously stimulates both the extensors and flexors which makes it a rather unique device. During the fifteen-minute exercise each muscle makes hundred and fifty more contractions than during the traditional practice of muscle strength at the gym.
WHEN IS THE MIHA BODYTEC APPLIED?
Miha Bodytec is applied in situations when we want to achieve results quickly, whether the clients want to keep or change their body shape, when it comes to people who play sports both recreationally and professionally; during the recovery after an injury, surgery, birth, etc.
Each practice is individually adjusted to the need of the trainee and made by a specially educated physical therapist. Depending on the current physical condition and the ultimate goal, Miha Bodytec device combines:
-practice for muscle strength, endurance and explosiveness through different static and dynamic exercises,
-practice for losing weight, accelerating metabolism and circulation (anti-cellulite program),
-program for muscle relaxation after practice (relaxation massage).
With this we achieve the following effects:
-all largest and most important muscle groups in our bodies are activated,
-muscles are shaped and strengthened, thus improving general mobility,
-Blood flow is increased and metabolism is accelerated,
-There is a direct influence on the subcutaneous tissue (fat layers and cellulite),
-Fat layers are reduced and exchanged for muscle mass,
-Joints are not encumbered just like in the usual methods of exercise.
HOW IS MIHA BODYTEC APPLIED?
Plug&Play principle of Miha Bodytec allows the practice to last a total of fifteen minutes. Modular system individually stimulates all muscles from head to toe. Just two workouts a week are sufficient to achieve optimal results along with your dedication and persistence in respecting the main principles of proper diet. Workouts are done individually under the expert supervision of a qualified and trained physical therapist and are completely adapted to the special needs of each trainee. Miha Bodytec workouts ought to be carried out by those who wish to keep or improve their health and enhance their quality of life, the ultimate goal being a total physical, mental and spiritual balance.
DTS – Spinal Decompression Therapy (traction) is a form of mechanotherapy which is used in our centre for the treatment of painful syndromes in the areas of cervical and lumbar spine. This non-surgical decompression is based upon the gentle extension of the spinal cord, which leads to the change in position and encumbrance of the spinal cord structure. The result obtained is the decrease in the intervertebral discs resistance and the metabolic processes improvement. However, in the case of a prolapsed disc, the negative pressure which is being created (the so-called vacuum phenomena) ought to bring to its slow retreat and the gradual lowering of the pressure on the neural structure.
This method of therapy can be used independently or in combination with other forms of physical therapy in the following events:
– Degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc,
– Disc herniation and disc protrusion,
– Facet joints disorders,
– Pressure on the spinal nerve roots,
– The reduction of the mobility of the spinal cord,
– Degenerative changes in the facet joints.
HOW IS THE TRACTION APPLIED?
This form of therapy is preceded by a detailed anamnesis in order to determine whether this is a suitable method of treatment for each patient individually. More often than not, it is necessary to run some radiological diagnostic as well (X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging). In our offices, the decompression therapy is carried out by using the latest Triton DTS sophisticated computerized system consisting of a table which can be adapted to each patient, a system of belts, and software enhanced traction unit. During the therapy, patients are fully dressed, in a lying position either on their back or stomach. The traction phase alone last up to fifteen minutes and the client is comfortable the entire time. One series encompasses up to twenty treatments.
Hydrotherapy in general implied the use of WATER for healing purposes, and because of its availability and numerous beneficial effects, it had been used since the olden times. When applied to the outer surface of the body, water has mechanic, thermal and chemical effects, all of which positively influences the musculoskeletal system, as well as the cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous and other systems of the body. The shortest way to explain hydrotherapy is to say that, when used properly, it has a favorable effect on the entire physical and mental state of the patient.
WHEN IS IT APPLIED?
Hydrotherapy is most often applied during the rehabilitation of orthopedic patients (after a fracture, joint dislocation, surgery, muscle and tendon injuries), neurological patients (weakness and paralysis caused by a number of things, multiple sclerosis, cerebral paralysis), patients with degenerative disease of the musculoskeletal system (hip, knee, changes in the spinal cord…), as well as most other patients, whenever it is possible. Hydrotherapy can also be used for prevention purposes so as to achieve psychophysical relaxation, especially in cases of athletes or people whose everyday commitments are weighing them down, as well as after kinesitherapy or other form of exercise. Its use for aesthetic purposes is notable too, independently, but more often in combination with other procedures, whose effects it supports.
In our office hydrotherapy is carried out with the help of modern hydromassage bathtub. We use hot water, the temperature is usually at 36 or 38 degrees Celsius (individually adjusted to suit each patient), hence both the thermal and the mechanic effects of hydrotherapy are being exploited. Dimensions and the shape of the tub allow each patient to take up a comfortable, relaxed position, while a massage of the entire or, if necessary, a certain body part is being performed through streams of water from the jets and hoses. Moreover, whirling massage is given with the help of special nozzles, and thanks to the small nozzles located at the bottom of the tub, we can also offer air bubbles massages (the so-called pearl baths), that creates the effect of a gentle massage on the surface of the skin and produces a specially pleasant and mild effect. One treatment usually last for about twenty minutes, and the number of treatments depends on the needs of each individual patient or client.
Manual massage is a therapeutic procedure which involves the use of mechanical energy through various manual techniques in the form of different types of pressure applied to the soft tissues and body muscles, which leads to the improved circulation and lymphatic system, i.e. the said tissue’s return to normal. In addition to that, the massage decreases muscle tension, enhances muscle tone, affects the nervous system in the sense of stimulation or sedation, and encourages tissue regeneration. Because of all this, we can say that this form of therapy has a positive impact on all systems of the human body, thus improving the patient’s overall health and mood.
We offer three types of massage: relaxation massage (full-body or partial), therapeutic massage and sports massage.
Mild and pleasant massage whose aim is a full-body relaxation by merging various flows of energy. It nurtures the body, propels the circulation and relaxes the muscles. During this massage, the entire body or only certain body parts are being treated, which helps to achieve the balance of energy and total body revitalization. The Relaxation Massage unwinds both body and mind, and relieves it of any stress and fatigue.
Chronic painful syndromes, most often located in the shoulder area, cervical spine and back, can be treated through different physical agents and procedures, one of most significant ways being the massage. The therapeutic massage accelerates the blood flow, enhances the supply of oxygen to the tissues and leads to the elimination of toxins from the patient’s body. In this way, it contributes to the reduction of pain, tension and the feeling of stiffness, as well as the increase in the joint mobility.
Sports massage is applicable in the cases of professional athletes or people who play sports recreationally, before or after some strenuous practice or competition.
It encourages the relaxation of certain groups of muscles or the entire musculature; it prepares the muscles by heating them up and by providing better elasticity of the muscle fibers before practice; it decreases the possibility of an injury by preparing the tissues for great physical effort it removes anxiety caused by stressful situations during competitions; it affects the complete mental and physical relaxation.
The manual massage is used:
– before practice or competitions, usually about an hour earlier in the duration of up to twenty minutes, after which athletes can prepare for their next activities,
– during practice, lasting up to fifteen minutes, with the aim of preventing delayed sore muscles which can appear in the 24- and 48-hour period after practice,
– after the practice or competition itself so as to enable the quickest recovery of the musculature.
HOW IS THE MANUAL MASSAGE APPLIED?
The massage is used in a specially designed room, in which the air temperature is adjusted according to the client placed in an adequate and comfortable position on a special table. We use different sort of massage oils, which can be neutral or aromatic. The whole process usually last for about thirty to sixty minutes.
The muscles determine body movements, control the vascular and lymphatic circulation and body temperature, therefore, the changes in the muscles functions may lead to a range of different symptomatologies. Therapeutic effects can be produced by stimulating the skin, and they need not be local, but can instead influence the deeper sections of the musculoskeletal system as well.
WHEN IS IT APPLIED?
The kinesio taping method is used to:
-provide support to the muscles,
-improve contraction of weakened muscles,
-reduce muscle fatigue,
-decrease excess stretching and excess contraction of the muscles,
-reduce the chance of cramps and possible muscle injuries,
-increase the range of movement,
-relieve the pain,
-impede blood and lymph stasis (thus improving circulation),
-decrease oversensitivity to pain in skin and muscles,
-reduce the irritation of touch and pain receptors — thus lessening the pain,
-fix a variety of joint problems,
-fix a variety of lymphatic drainage problems,
-fix certain functioning problems,
-decrease scars and prevent keloid formation.
TThe strip is waterproof and, with its micromovements, stimulates the dermal and subdermal receptors, and consequently the entire nervous system which conditions the muscle reflex. In addition to this, with the help of skin stimulation, the tape reduces lymph and blood stasis, enhances local microcirculation and facilitates swelling reduction. By puckering the skin, intercellular spaces are increased, blood flow and fluid absorption is improved, and the pressure in the subcutaneous layer is decreased. It is possible to treat a very wide range of diseases using these strips, therefore, the therapy must be carried out only by specially trained physical therapists and doctors. The kinesio taping therapy is a part of a therapeutic protocol alongside other therapy procedures, but it can also be applied in between other procedures if the patient is not able to come every day.
Depending on the localization of the problem at hand, it is possible to apply kinesio taping therapy at the same time as the other methods of physical therapy. The strips do not limit movements, on the contrary, they support it, so it is advisable to exercise and carry out kinesiotherapy methods while the tapes are being applied.
HOW IS IT APPLIED?
In kinesio taping method, a specially designed strip, which is very similar to the skin itself in its characteristics (weight, thickness, elasticity), is used. The tape does not contain any pharmacological agents. The glue located on its surfaces is hypoallergenic, but the strip itself allows the skin to breathe to the fullest. It is waterproof, thus the patients are able to freely take a shower while the strip is applied. It ought to be carried for three to five days after which it is completely removed from the skin. Kinesio taping method, due to all these characteristics of the strip, can be used an unlimited amount of times without any harmful effects.
Kinesitherapy is an area of physical therapy which deals with the study and the application of movements of certain body parts or the entire body for healing or prevention purposes. The main goal of kinesitherapy is establishing the optimal functioning of both body parts and body as a whole.
Kinesitherapy is carried out individually, depending on the general state of the body (cardiovascular system, respiratory system, nervous system), as well as the mental readiness and motivation, patient’s interest in sports, etc.
WHEN IS IT APPLIED?
Kinesitherapy is applied in different phases of the treatment of most diverse disorders, as well as when we want to prevent problems in the musculoskeletal system. Kinesitherapy is an obligatory, and usually the most important part of rehabilitation in cases of:
– Orthopedic patients (after an injury – especially sports injury, surgery…),
– Patients suffering from rheumatic diseases,
– Neurological patients (after a stroke, when there are some demyelinating, degenerative, inflammatory or hereditary diseases present),
– Cardiovascular diseases,
– Pulmonary diseases,
– Deformities developed in children (congenital or acquired),
In short, there are very few states in medicine when the kinesitherapy is not applied.
HOW IS IT APPLIED?
In our emergency room, the kinesitherapy is carried out individually, which means that there is a special program being designed for each and every patient depending on his/her needs or problems. The exercises are done with the help or under the surveillance of a qualified physiotherapist. The exercise programs are in compliance with all ages, both in children and adults. You can exercise with us even if you are completely healthy, but you need a controlled type of recreation.
Mulligan concept is a manual therapy technique which integrates mobilization with movement, and which was invented by Brian Mulligan during the 1970s. He concluded that injuries and sprains can be a result of a small change in the joint structure position which, as such, causes reduced mobility and, often, painful joint sensitivity too. A simple and efficient solution to this includes the application of painless repositioning techniques so as to both relieve the joint of pain and restore its function.
WHEN IS IT APPLIED?
Mulligan can be applied independently or in combination with other methods of physical therapy during the treatment of states of acute but also chronic pain in patients of all age, as long as they are capable of adequate communication and cooperation. It is most often used in cases of painful syndromes of cervical and lumbar spine caused by a variety of things, but also for the treatment of different injuries (ankle joint sprain, knee dislocation, meniscus lesion and other), chronic irritations of tendons, muscles and their entheses, headaches, etc.
The Mulligan manual therapy can be applied on the patient who may be standing, sitting or lying down. The therapist applies the mobilization which he then combines with either active or passive physiological movement. The application of the technique, when indicated and properly conducted, is painless and can lead to immediate improvements.